Power Semiconductor Devices Classification
Semiconductor devices having high voltage and current ratings are known as Power Semiconductor Devices. The Power Devices are classified into various categories based on their Turn ON and Turn OFF capability, Type of gate signal required, Current Conduction Capability and Voltage withstanding ability. The Power semiconductor devices classification is discussed in this post.
For better understanding the abbreviations of power semiconductor devices are given below:
SCR – Silicon Controlled Rectifier
RCT – Reverse Conducting Thyristor
GTO - Gate TurnOff Thyristor
BJT - Bipolar Junction Transistor
SIT – Static Induction Transistor
MOSFET – Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor
IGBT - Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor
TRIAC - TRIode for Alternating Current
MCT - MOS Controlled Thyristor
Based on Turn ON and Turn OFF Capability:
- Uncontrollable power semiconductor devices
Diode: The ON and OFF state are not depend on the control signal. They depend on the power source.
- Partially controllable power semiconductor devices
SCR, TRIAC, DIAC — They are turned ON by applying gate signal. But these devices can not be turned OFF with the help of gate signals. They are turned off by load or by commutation.
- Fully controllable power semiconductor devices
Power BJT, MOSFET, IGBT, GTO – These devices can be both turned ON and turned OFF by applying gate signals
Based on Gate signal:
- Pulse gate requirement
Example: SCR, GTO, SITH, MCT
To Turn ON these devices, pulse voltage is applied as a control signal. Once the device is turned on, the gate pulse is not required and thus removed.
- Continuous gate requirement
Example: BJT, MOSFET, IGBT
For these devices, continuous gate signal is required to maintain them in ON state.
Based on Current Conduction Capability:
- Unidirectional Current Devices
Ex:- SCR, GTO, BJT, MOSFET, IGBT
- Bidirectional Current Devices
Ex:- TRIAC, RCT(Reverse Conducting Thyristor)
Based on Voltage withstanding ability
- Unipoloar voltage withstanding devices
Ex:- BJT, MOSFET, IGBT
- Bipolar voltage withstanding devices
Ex:- SCR, GTO
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